G3's 'How the World Works' inquiry has really started to gather great pace and momentum. We have been exploring the geology below TIS. To do this, we took samples of the soil and then inspected it very thoroughly, both with our hands and our digital microscopes.
We also looked at some historic geology taken by some TIS Secondary students. We learnt from their data that there is water, air, silt, peat, graphite, potassium, clay, humus and some other very small traces of rarer minerals within the TIS soil.
We have also taken some soil assays of the land where the new Elementary building will be built on. This is just to see what is below the ground before construction begins, we need to get more data about if there are any valuable minerals in this part of the campus. Our assays will be tested over the holidays....
Visible Thinking - Diamond Ranking (of metals)
As a starting activity to see the children's prior knowledge of valuable metals, we used the Visible Thinking routine of 'Diamond Ranking' to see 2 things. What metals the children ranked as the most and least expensive. Also, which metals they ranked as the most and least useful. Of course, as with many of these routines, the most important part is WHY the children rank each metal where they do. It is their reasoning and explanations of their thinking that is critical. This gives lots of information and helps to make sure that the inquiry moves forward in the most appropriate and exciting way possible.
$10,000 Stock Market Challenge - Economics
Our first line of inquiry is 'How we use and value minerals'. So, as a way for the children to see how the world markets buys and sells metals (largely online) we have set up some virtual trading accounts for the children. The money they are using is pretend, but they are using live prices from the stock market as they try and turn their $10,000 into a healthy profit.
The mathematics value in such an activity is huge. Not only are the children calculating their trade accounts accurately using large numbers (with decimals), but they are also looking at finding trends and patterns within the data available to them in tables and online graphs. They are also starting to gain an understanding of why prices might go up or down and how supply and demand determines the price that the market will pay. This project will continue to run throughout the unit. After one week, team MMM seems to be building a significant lead. (Ask your child who is in MMM).
The related concept that we have been focusing on over the last few days is 'economics'. To explore this further, every child has been issued with $600 of 'Matt Money'. They then have been trying to consider a series of deals and challenges to try and find out if they are good or bad value. They have been thinking about the risks involved with each challenge and whether the reward is mathematically acceptable. Ultimately, we have been focusing on looking deeper into problems and to try and find the maths within each deal.
Problem Solving with Manipulatives and Matches
G3 have been spending time trying to solve tricky multi step problems. To do this they have been focusing on how they organise and set out their work during a mathematical investigation. The emphasis has been on pausing and really considering which strategies are appropriate for each problem. We have been aiming to be logical and have been trying to verbalise our reasons for each strategy and to justify all of our steps.
Below are some logical (video) problems for you to try and solve as a family.
Geology Holiday Padlet
Over the upcoming holiday G3 can keep in contact with each other by recording interesting geology that they discover on this class padlet page. Please help / assist your child to upload photos and videos of any exciting rocks or minerals that they may come across. Also, please encourage them to include a description with what they think it might be, what it's function could be and what it's value might be.
Our next line of inquiry is 'Geology driving technology'. So, to really understand what geology (and minerals in particular) are used in technology we want to take apart old electronic equipment to see what is inside. If you have an old phone, computer or hairdryer (or anything like this) that you no longer use (and don't want back) it would be wonderful if you could donate this to G3.
We will start experimenting / disassembling the old technology after the holidays, so please send in anything you have on the first Monday back (9th April).
Happy Navruz (belated)
Growth Mindset of the Week
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Thank you for all your support and help over the last term. The weeks are flying by, I cannot believe that we only have 9 weeks left together after the holidays.
Have a wonderful holiday and safe travels if you are leaving Tashkent over the break.
Our final line of inquiry in 'How We Express Ourselves' focused on the reasons why artists create and the function that art plays in our wider society and culture.
We spent time thinking about what drives an artist and came up with many ideas such as emotion, money, politics, religion and fame. It was an interesting debate which widened our understanding of what could inspire artists to create. We also had the opportunity to explore the kind of culture we have established in 3C and what we need to do to cultivate an even more inspiring and fun class culture.
G3 have been busy creating critiques of famous works of art. We have been trying to ignore other views and the reputation of the art, and instead focus on what we see and what we believe is being expressed in each piece. We have been trying to identify the elements of art in each picture, state the parts that we like and then try to interpret what message or story each artist was trying to communicate.
If you have some free time and would like to read all the 3C critiques, they are on display outside the G3 classrooms.
Preparing for the Exhibition...
All the children worked incredibly hard preparing for our big 'Art Exhibition'. They synthesised all their ideas and attempted to bring them all together to share a true account of their memory in art, drama and music.
The children have worked very hard and, even though this was a solo project, they have been excellent at offering help, advice and support to each other as the projects evolved.
As we near the end of G3 we will be aiming to give the children more opportunities to work on larger projects where they have to take responsibility for their time management, organisation and presenting skills. These are essentials skills that will help the students flourish and be successful when they progress up to G4.
Art Gallery (Exhibition part 1)
The art gallery looked wonderful and was possibly my personal highlight of our three part exhibition. Each stand was very well set out and was very appealing to the eye. They all had headlines for each memory, the conceptual ideas behind the art and the blurb explaining more about each piece of work.
What was even more impressive than the visual, was the confidence and the passion that the children had when engaging with the audience and explaining the ideas, emotions and process behind their work. A big thank you to Ms Asa for inspiring the children to create so many exciting and interesting pieces of art.
Drama Performances (Exhibition part 2)
Performing in the black box was a very exciting second part of our exhibition which allowed us to express the same memories, but through a different art form. All the children who performed showed that they were risk takers and the performances were gratefully received by the audience. A big thank you to Mr Durin for helping G3 develop these performance pieces.
Music Performances (Exhibition part 3)
The final part of the exhibition was sharing our memory through music. Each child created an original piece using a whole variety of instruments and techniques. This was a wonderful part of the exhibition and showed another layer of the emotions that came from each child's memory. Thank you to Ms Alicia for assisting G3 and encouraging the children to create such exciting pieces of music.
Our new 'How the World Works' Unit
Our new 'How The World Works' unit is underway. We have been looking at this transdisciplinary theme descriptor and working out which part of the descriptor G3 will be connecting with over the next 6 weeks or so. We have also unjumbled our new central idea and have been looking at which skills we will need to successfully navigate ourselves through this unit.
Lots has happened in this unit already and some parts of TIS have even been dug up as we ponder what is underneath the ground. More from this exciting geology based unit in the next blog.
Growth Mindset of the Week
A huge thank you to thos who came to the Art Exhibition earlier this week. It really did mean a lot to the children and they loved sharing their work with you. It was particular nice to see so many parents engaging with, not just their own child, but with other members of the class too.
Remember, there is no school on Tuesday and Wednesday next week.
Have a great weekend,
Compass Points / Step Inside - Visible Thinking Routines
G3 have been developing their observing and analytical skills through visible thinking routines. The first one we tried was called 'Compass Points'. This routine prompts the children to express their own views about something (in this case a provocative image) and to consider the perspective of the artist and the bigger conceptual idea behind the image.
We have also been using the visible thinking routine of 'Step Inside' to really put ourselves in the place of an artist and to really learn to appreciate what they are trying to express to their audience. This routine is very fun, as we literally have to step into the picture (see video below).
Within G3 we are using lots of engaging visible thinking and we are building up a healthy repetoire of different routines. These then become a common way to share our views, ideas and thinking. More information about different visible thinking strategies can be found by clicking the link below.
A huge thank you to all the parents and teachers who took part in our creativity week. The children got lots of opportunities to understand, try and ask questions about many different art forms. Thank you for being so brave and setting such a good example for your children.
The adult workshops have also inspired the children to bring in their own passions and to share them with the class in a similar way.
Hastimam Madrassa Trip
This week Grade 3 were very lucky to visit the Hastimam Madrassa in Tashkent. We were treated to five fascinating local workshops about wood carving, lacquered painting, straw art, embroidery and minature painting.
It was wonderful to observe the accuracy and precision by these craftsmen/women. It was great for the kids to see the dedication, patience and enthusiasm by the artists for their work. We also got to 'have a go' at some of the arts. Hopefully, some of these experiences will inspire and influence the class when they start creating work for the G3 Art Exhibition at the end of our current 'How We Express Ourselves' unit.
Emotional Doodling - Expression
Emotional doodling is when you let your drawings be influenced by other factors, in this case music. You allow the ideas, the colours and outline of a piece to be driven by the emotions you feel from each piece of music. We had four very diverse pieces. A scary piece of music from a horror movie, the calm of William Orbit, the Teletubbies theme and finally ending on Dr Dre. It is fascinating to see how each child reacted differently (through their art) to each style of music. This was a great lead in to our second line of inquiry 'Audiences can interpret the arts differently' and our focus on the related concept of 'subjectivity'.
As part of our word study lessons we inquired into pangrams. A pangram is a sentence (that makes sense) that has every letter of the alphabet used at least one time. The shortest pangram in the English language is 'The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.' 9 words and 35 letters. The challenge was to beat this total. Sadly, we did not manage this almost impossible feat (modern computers have failed to create a shorter panagram), but we did come up with some very fun sentences and we really took time to consider our choice of words and letters.
The last few weeks Grade 3 have been focusing on fractions in mathematics. The central idea has been 'We explore fractions to understand how the world around is shared / divided'. We followed the following lines of inquiry and concepts.
Creativity Videos of the Week
Below are some very inspirational and provocative videos that we have been watching about creativity and the arts. If you have time over the weekend, I would definitely recommend that you watch these together as a family and talk about how each video makes you feel and why. What do you take away from the videos?
As the culmination of our 'How We Express Ourselves' G3 will be hosting an Art Exhibition on Monday 12th March. Parents will be invited to come to the exhibition from 1.10pm and then children from other classes will start attending from 1.30pm. Please mark this date in your diaries / calendars.
Have an amazing and creative weekend,
Our New 'How We Express Ourselves' Unit
G3 have been very busy unpacking lots of the key elements in our new 'How We Express Ourselves' unit of inquiry. We have been un-jumbling our central idea and considering what directions the inquiry might possibly go in. We have also looked at which skills we will be focusing on and trying to improve over the course of the unit. We start with looking at the skill of observing, then we synthesis our ideas before presenting them in many wonderful pieces of art!
As a provocation to get the children really thinking about their own views and ideas about art, we gave them 12 different paintings to observe and consider. These painting ranged dramatically in value (and fame) from the most expensive painting ever sold by Leonard Di Vinci ($450.3M) all the way down to a painting by a boy named James aged 5 from South London (James does not sell his paintings).
The children were not told the name of the artists or the valuations initially. Instead they were given the task of ranking the paintings (in groups) in order based upon the following criteria. 1) Preference 2) Value 3) The ability of the artist. Of course, so much of this is very subjective and there is no actual correct answer. This kind of activity is an excellent starting point for the children to debate and exchange different views.
Interesting enough, most children were drawn to two paintings that had very low valuations. They expressed why and could give reasons for their views and why they were each ranked above the other paintings. It was very interesting when the real valuations were displayed. Did the children still feel the same or did they change their minds? Was value important or was it the beauty that they saw before they knew the price? Some very interesting debates and conversations....
Our 'How We Express Ourselves' central idea is 'The arts are a unique way to communicate a message or a story'. So, an important part of the unit is for the children to work out what message or story they want to tell and explore.
We started this process by getting the children to lay down and listen to relaxing music. They were then asked to start to try and visualise important memories from their lives. They were encouraged to considered all memories that perhaps involved lots of different emotions. Once the children had been given lots of time they each chose 4 key memories to focus on and to document in their scrolls.
For each memory the children recorded a sketch of the memory, why it was powerful to them, what emotions were linked to them, the senses they connect to it and a headline that summed it up in 2-8 words.
Now they have completed their scrolls, these will form the platform for their inquiries in to how they express and tell their stories through a wide variety of arts. Also, the children will start to consider whether they can share the same memory using different forms of art. Are some memories easier to share through certain art forms? Why?
Passion Projects 2018
3C have been thinking about their passion projects from 2017. Which parts were successful and why? Also, they were considering if they wanted to continue their old projects or start a new project.
Some have continued to explore the same areas, whilst others have changed their ideas. We have lots of intriguing new projects in many exciting areas such as:
- How to draw better
- The history of bookmarks
- An exploration into the discipline of the pole vault
- The ultimate Marvel fighter
- Photographing nature
G3 practiced their presenting skills at the Winter Concert last night. The night provided lots of connections to our current unit and a great chance for the children to express themselves in front of a very big audience. There are some photos / videos below from both the dress rehearsal and the concert.
PARENTS - We Need You!
Dear Grade 3 Parents,
G3's current 'How We Express Ourselves' unit is underway. Our central idea is 'The arts are a unique way to communicate a message or a story'. At this stage of the unit we are looking at the different forms of art and how they can be used to express feelings and stories. This is where we would like your help to introduce the children to as many different forms of the arts as possible.
Please sign up to the following google doc if you are willing to offer a small workshop next week to share an art / hobby that you are passionate about that involves creativity. The workshop might only be for 5 minutes or perhaps a lot longer if you have lots to share. Last year we had lots of brave parents who offered a wide range of small demonstrations. Examples included origami, dancing, embroidery, instrument solos, poetry, story telling, showing art and talks about photography.
Thanks for being risk-takers and getting involved in G3's learning. Once you have signed up to a slot one of the G3 teachers will be in touch to see how we can assist you to prepare.
The Grade 3 Team
Creative Street Art
Many of the children really enjoyed this video and the idea that the street artists used the environment as the inspiration for their art work. It is really great to keep pausing the video and to consider what was the starting point that inspired each piece of art and to try and consider what each artist is trying to express and why. Enjoy.
Growth Mindset of the Week
I hope to see some of you next week joining in our week of creativity and expression. If you can not access the google doc to sign up for a workshop, please just email me and we will work out a time.
Have an amazing weekend,
We have been exploring our third line of inquiry (above) and looking at how the past can influence the present / future and why. The concept we have been looking at is causation and we have especially been focusing on how ideas can evolve naturally or be innovated by others.
We then looked at what influences us in our own lives. What people, books, music and arts etc inspire us and make us want to strive to be better. We also considered who we each influence at the moment and what kind of role models we want to be.
Mirzo Ulugbek Visits G3
G3 were very lucky to have an actor come in who played the part of Mirzo Ulugbek for us. He answered our questions and queries about the life and legacy of this great astronomer. It really helped the children to see this great explorer as a real person, and not just as someone we read about in books etc. This connected really well to our work on empathy.
Explorer Day was an amazing success. It was so fun to dress up in costumes and to become the famous explorers that we have been so busy researching and analysing. It also took our work on empathy to the next level.
The children made some wonderful emotional connections to the explorers and were very thoughtful in how they presented to the audience. The children were also able to demonstrate why their chosen person was important, what their legacy was and what were the major influences in their lives.
What was most exciting about this mini project, was that the children have completed all the work independently and have taken ownership in terms of how they manage their time and how they got fully prepared for the presentations.
I hope you enjoy the photos and video below.
World / 3C Battleships Championship
A huge tournament has been occuring in 3C the last few days as the children use all their strategic skills and knowledge of coordinates to try and become World / 3C Battleship Champion. Congratulations to Stan who, after stepping in as a late replacement for Zafar, was able to edge his way to victory against Valeria in the final. The real winner though, of course, was our collective knowledge of coordinates. The tournament has really helped us to understand the value of finding and documenting coordinates correctly to achieve a goal.
Goodbye to STAN
3C were very sad to say goodbye to a wonderful member of our class family today. Stan is moving on to a new exciting adventure in Malaysia. We will miss his calm, friendly and principled ways. He has been an excellent influence on all of us in 3C and we have all learnt lots from him. I hope one day he achieves his ambition of creating the largest shark made out of lego in the world!
Growth Mindset of the Week
Next week G3 start our exciting new unit. It is 'How we Express Ourselves' and will be a real opportunity to explore and express ourselves in many creative and artistic ways. More information about this unit will be in the next blog.
As part of this unit, we would love for some brave parents to come into our classroom and share an art form that you are passionate about. This could be a song, a poem, a craft, a hobby or anything else that involves creativity. Last year we had parents demonstrate a wide variety of art forms - from origami, to sewing to reading original stories. The purpose is to introduce the children to a wide variety of art forms, so please send me an email and get involved in our learning.
Have a great weekend,
Grade 3 have been focusing on our second line of inquiry over the last two weeks - 'Meaningful discoveries and contributions.' We have been looking at the 'legacy' of many explorers and what 'change' they brought to the world through their travels and discoveries.
State Museum of History Trip
G3 had a very successful and interesting trip to the State Museum of the History of Uzbekistan. We were able to examine many different artifacts from the local area and other parts of Central Asia too. There was lots of opportunities to ask questions and record our findings in our own special journals (just like Jack in the Magic Treehouse).
During our trip we only got to really explore a small part of the museum. If you have time one weekend or over the holidays I really urge you to go as a family and to spend time making a connection with the very rich history from this region. The museum is at 3 Buyuk Turon Street and is open from 9-5 most days.
Biographies of famous Explorers
One of our language inquiries has been into biographies. We have been identifying the features and then analysing different biographies of explorers. This has helped us really think about the legacy and impact that each explorer had.
Then, we 'had a go' at doing some very imaginative writing by creating our own biographies (as if we were someone writing about ourselves after our lives were over). This was actually a very uplifting exercise that allowed us all the opportunity to reflect on the impact that we want to make in our lives and the type of positive legacy we want to leave.
Empathy with Explorers - Diaries
We have also been exploring the attitude of 'empathy'. We have done this by each choosing an explorer to research. Then, after researching their lives, we have been trying to find the most interesting day or time that really defined their legacy.
Once we had established this, we tried to really empathise about how it would have felt to be there and what emotions would be going through the explorer's mind. We recorded our work in diary form. Then, with a little help from some coffee, tried to age our documentation a little bit. Ask your child about who they chose and what day defined their legacy!
Throughout December 3C have been trying to follow a kindness calendar - an alternative version to the traditional advent calendar. We didn't follow the calendar day by day, as some of the activities were difficult to do at school. So, instead we chose the ones that we thought we could do at TIS. So far we have attempted Day 3, Day 5, Day 18, Day 25, Day 29 and Day 30.
I would recommend as a family trying to complete a few more of these tasks.
If you would like to know more about the organisation, please go to http://www.actionforhappiness.org/
They are a wonderfully positive and inspirational group who are trying to change the way indivduals, groups and communities see the world, and their role within the world.
Below are some photos from our day 30 challenge - 'Take a walk and focus on nature's beauty.'
Book Club - Who is 'M'?
Grade 3 have started our own book club recently to search for clues as to who the mysterious M was in the Magic Treehouse books. We read books 1-3 as a class, but still only had a small amount of evidence as to M's identity. So, we sourced the next 8 books and split into teams (each in charge of reading one of the 8 books together). Each group then documented:
- Where Jack and Annie travelled to in their book and why.
- What they learnt about M.
- What insights the book gave to that period of history.
The book club is an excellent opportunity for children to work there way through a book independently, but with the aim to find specific information.
Thank you to everyone who donated money to this amazing charity. Also, thank you to the brave students who used the beard trimmers to remove my moustache with care and precision!
Many of the children will miss being apart over the next 3 weeks or so. So, I have created an optional padlet page where the children can share their adventures with each other over the holiday period. The focus of the padlet, as with the unit, will be exploration and discovery. Where have you explored over the holidays? What will you discover? Thank you in advance for helping your children to upload photos, videos and comments to this padlet page. The link to the page is below.
Wow - so there are lots and lots of festive things going on this Friday. Please see information about the cookie swap and pajama party (or pyjama in my case) below.
As it is the cookie swap we probably won't need too much extra food and drink for our class party (which starts at 2.15PM). If you wanted to send in some healthy drinks or food though, that would be wonderful.
Before the party we will be sharing our passion projects (at about 1.30PM). If you are around and want to pop in that would be great, but it will be very informal. There will be times in 2018 when we will really urge you to attend big activities and presentations, but this is just an optional extra if you are free.
Growth Mindset Video of the Week
This seasonal video perhaps shows us that maybe we can all be a little too enthusiastic sometimes. I am sure the last words her teacher said before she went on stage were, "Be loud and confident!" So, I am sure she was just following instructions!
Have a wonderful and relaxing holiday, wherever in the world you may be for the break. I look forward to seeing you all in 2018 for more exciting inquiries and learning.
New - 'Where We Are in Place and Time' unit
The class have been very busy unpacking and exploring our new excting unit of inquiry. The children have been learning about the 'Where We Are in Place and Time' descriptor, the unit's central idea and the transdisciplinary skills that we will be exploring over the next few weeks.
It is really important that each component of the unit (such as the skills) are introduced in a fun and interesting ways so that the children make a real connection with them. This is why our unit of inquiry board starts off empty and only gets added to as we learn or discover new information together as a class. So, our unit board starts to tell the journey of our unit and, more importantly, our understanding.
A provocation is designed to engage children at (usually) the start of a unit. It should be, as the name suggests, provoking and really make children think about how they feel about a subject area. The provocations are often fictious, but we always ask parents not to reveal that as it would change how the children respond to the unit.
For our 'Where We Are in Place and Time' provocation we found a video interview involving Ms Jan (below) and a local TV channel. The TV interview was about an artifact found under the new gym site. The TV channel suggested that the artifact may be linked to Uzbek astronomer and mathematician, Ulugbek.
The children's response then dictates how the unit proceeds. What questions will the video create? What direction will the unit go in? The aim is that the students take the lead and decide how to move the inquiry forwards.
Our class padlet (below) was a way we could put all our data and research about Ulugbek in one place. We could then use our analysis skills to try and look for ways to connect Ulugbek to the Tashkent area and to see if there was any logical reason why a time device would turn up in our school and why it would be taken away by the government. The inquiry continues... Perhaps next week's trip to the State Museum of History might reveal more information...
Inquiring into Artifacts
Our first unit of inquiry looks at 'how atifacts document human progress'. The conceptual understanding that goes with this is connection and our related concept that will drive the inquiry is evidence.
So, with that in mind, the children have been looking through a variety of different artifacts from across history. They have been trying to sort, organise, age and value the various artifacts. They have also been looking for evidence that would support their ideas and looking to see how early artifacts connect to more modern human inventions. Also, the children have been learning what a hypothesis is. They have been practicing making hypotheses based upon their research and analysis.
Grade 3 have been learning about 3D shapes this week, and specifically looking at identifying how many edges, faces and vertices we can find on different shapes. Once we had a good basic knowledge about identifying these features, we then attempted to apply these skills in a futuristic robotic game. www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks2/maths/shape_space/3d_shapes/play/
Warning - the last level can get a little scary if you can't find a good hiding place!
3C have finally finished our fabulous non chronological reports about our favourite animals. The end results were so impressive, that we decided to create a huge book with all the reports to be put into our class library.
The reports showed that all the class understood the features of this type of report writing and also showed how their research skills were developing and becoming more focused. It was also excellent to see all the class sourcing their work and providing links to the website and books where they found their information.
Indian Dancing at TIS
Earlier this week we had a wonderful cultural treat when a dance group from India performed at the school. The children really enjoyed seeing the colour, the energy and the passion from the dancers as they told many exciting narratives through dance.
Growth Mindset Video
3C watched this video a few days ago. It is primarily a beautifully made video. What makes this extra interesting though is that it is based on the children's game 'Rock, Paper, Scissors'.
The first time we watched this nobody immediately made this connection (I didn't let them see the title). After reflecting and thinking of the characters, the theme of the story was slowly discovered. Then, when we watched it again we had a completely different experience and saw it from a very different perspective.
If you have time, I recommend watching this as a family.
A belated Happy Thanksgiving to all who celebrate this holiday!
Have a great weekend,
Grade 3 have spent lots of time inquiring into how humans have measured time. Looking at what resources they have used to do so and what mechanisms are in place to ensure that time is measured precisely.
So, with this information in mind, we set out to build our own time devices. Our aim was to create a time device that could consistently and accurately measure a 20 second period of time. This was a very complicated task and, although we created very detailed plans, it was only when we actively started to test our ideas that we started to understand the nature of the task and the difficulties involved with it.
Please see below some photos and a video from the planning and creating stages of our machines. Then there is a video of our finished efforts.
Museum of Astronomy
Last week we were very lucky to visit the Astronomy Institute in Tashkent. This was an excellent chance for us to witness some amazing old time devices that date back many hundreds of years. We looked at how they functioned and how they evolved as new technologies and ideas came about.
We were also able to each have a look out of one of the largest working telescopes in Central Asia. As it was daytime there was not a lot to see, but it was fun to touch the telescope and imagine how amazing it would be at night-time with a sky full of stars and planets.
For our 'How We Organise Ourselves' summative assessment the children were given a very tough time challenge. They had to, in their small teams, complete a series of tasks within a set period of time. This was designed to test their organisational and time management skills, as well as to give them the chance to show how they prioritise and create a plan.